Visually impaired persons from Thika on Wednesday to the streets protesting what they termed as discrimination in government aid especially during this tough COVID-19 period. They walked to the Ministry of Labour, Culture, Gender and Social Services offices, demanding to for answers as why they never benefited from the national safety net programme populary known as Inua Jamii.

They claimed that only the rich but well connected persons benefited from the kitty. Speaking to the press, Ann Mwema claimed that the money set aside by the government to benefit the disabled was diverted to less deserving people if not ending up in pockets individuals within the government. Jecintah Syombua said that despite of her advanced age, she had never accessed "Pesa Kwa Wazee" a fate she said was replicated in most of her colleagues. They pleaded with the relevant government departments to intervene and save them from the discrimination they are are facing.

4 MPs drawn from Kiambu and Murang'a counties are calling on the Director of Survey to expedite the re-surveying of Del Monte Land whose 99-year lease expires in 2022.

Eng. Patrick Wainaina (Thika), Joseph Nduati (Gatanga), Simon King’ara (Ruiru) and Jude Njomo (Kiambu town) say that the delay in renewing the lease has affected the multi-million company’s investment decisions and development.

They added that the delay could lead to loss of at least 34,000 direct and indirect jobs especially if the company’s land lease is not renewed.

They regretted that the delay in renewing the lease even after Del Monte applied for the same 12 years ago could see the country lose Ksh 10 billion in foreign exchange including Ksh 7.5 billion on supplier’s backward linkage.

The company that enjoys a turnover of over Ksh 10 billion annually owns 22,000 acres of land.

Should the company be found to be having land it does not use, Wainaina said the parcels would be converted into public use where an industrial park, schools, cottage industries, low-cost housing and hospitals could be built to benefit the public.

The multinational company has been embroiled in a tussle with lobbyists under the patronage of the Kandara Residents Association, Kiambu and Murang’a Counties.

Blue Nile Rolling Mills Limited, is set to get a Sh. 862 million loan from the International Finance Corporation (IFC) to restructure its operations and fund the construction of a galvanised wire plant.

The company, which manufactures the Kifaru brand of steel products, plans to raise Sh. 1.5 billion aimed at setting up Kenya’s first galvanisation wire manufacturing plant in Nairobi, capable of producing 26,580 tonnes per annum.

The Thika-based plant currently produces its steel and wire products. It has a capacity to produce 100,000 metric tonnes of steel products and 15,700 metric tonnes of wire products.

The construction of the galvanised wire plant has since been completed and the factory has started production. Blue Nile launched operations in 2006 by acquiring a steel wire product manufacturing facility in Kikuyu.

In 2016, the company began exporting its products to Tanzania, Uganda, Rwanda, Burundi and the Democratic Republic of Congo.

Detectives yesterday arrested 3 suspects over a fraud syndicate where M-PESA operators across the country have been defrauded of their cash.
One of the suspects, Jacktone Odhiambo Opondo, was nabbed in a house at Belbur Nobility Flats in Egerton, Njoro - Nakuru County, where over 3,000 Safaricom lines, both registered and unregistered recovered.
His arrest led the detectives to two of his accomplices, Millicent Wanjiru Maina and John Karuku Kabue, who were later arrested at Muigai Inn in Juja, Kiambu County.
It has been established that the gang has been getting ID numbers from a loans App known as Scoppe, and thereafter using the same to illegally register the acquired sim cards.
To execute their fraud, the suspects approach MPESA Agents as dealers in pretext of selling sim cards and other products at discounted prices and in the process switch the agents' MPESA phones before flushing their float.

The three are in custody for processing and other legal procedures.

A major crackdown on clubs and liquor joints operating illegally within Thika West Sub-County saw liquor worth about KES. 300,000 seized.

A multi-agency security team led by the Thika West DCC Douglas Mutai and the Thika Sub-County Admin Ng'ang'a Nyoroku on Thursday stormed into these illegal outlets in Makongeni and Kiganjo areas.

Speaking after the operation Mutai singled out Makongeni bus park area as very notorious in the sale of alcohol illegally, warning them they would intensify their fight against these joints until the area was free from those who risked the lives of others.

"We are ranking very high in COVID-19 infections and we need to trend very carefully to avoid a spike in the number of infections. No bar is allowed to operate and those who wish to sell wines and spirits must obtain the requisite licences from the County Government of Kiambu," he said. 

He reminded them that the government only gave out licences for wholesale and distribution of wines and spirits and not for sit-in clients 

My Fellow Countrymen,

Today marks the 21st day since I last addressed you on the 6th of July 2020. On that day, in order to enable our economy to open, I reduced some measures we had taken against the COVID-19 pandemic.
This action was made alongside a national call to individual and collective ‘civic responsibility’.

This process of de-escalating the measures against the pandemic needed all citizens to be far more serious with wearing masks, sanitising often, and keeping social distance. We have had 3 weeks to assess the response.

This morning, I chaired the Fifth Extraordinary Summit of the National and County Governments. This was third consultation we have had on where we stand as a country against one of the greatest health and economic threats faced by humanity in the last century.

The results are in. The surge of the infections has continued for the last 21 days, and in some areas accelerated sharply. The virus has now infected Kenyans in 44 counties.

Nationally, 17,603 persons have so far tested positive for the virus. My greatest concern at the moment is the aggressive surge of infections among young Kenyans who are in turn infecting their elders.

Contact tracing of the recent surge of infections indicates that our socialising without regard for protective behaviour, particularly in environments serving alcohol, is becoming a high risk factor.

We are fortunate that our Case Fatality Rate, at 1.6%, is much lower than the global average. Perhaps it is this relatively low rate that is giving some Kenyans false comfort that this is not a serious health risk to them and their families.

Those are the people who have interpreted the de-escalation of the measures as a green light to pay no heed to the guidance by our health authorities. Their reckless actions are endangering those around them, and our whole country.

I must remind Kenyans that the Government cannot police the morality of its citizens. Citizens must balance between their individual rights and their responsibility to each other.

We cannot have a policeman at every street and in every village to enforce the rules. We need, as citizens, to hold ourselves and one another accountable.

If someone enters your shop without a mask, insist that they wear one. If a waiter in a restaurant is not complying with the health rules, speak up, report them, and even refuse them your business. Do your part knowing that it will keep you and your loved ones safer.

These are not normal times. Countries whose citizens have taken a careless or relaxed attitude have suffered greatly. Let us not follow their example.

Some who have the most extensive and advanced medical facilities have been completely overwhelmed.

Their sick, by the tens of thousands, have suffered loneliness as comforting visitors are kept away to prevent infection. They have lacked sufficient space in their morgues.

They have dug graves by the tens of thousands for lonely, scary burials as health authorities limit the numbers who can mourn at the graveside. We cannot allow this to be Kenya’s fate.

We mourn the 280 Kenyans lost to this cruel virus as of yesterday. Unfortunately, there will be more. The only question is whether we shall emerge with a low number of deaths or shall suffer a catastrophe.

The harsh reality is that we are at war. With an invisible, ruthless and relentless enemy.

In war, no mercy is shown by either side. In war, survival is key. Self-preservation is the priority for all in a theatre of war.

This is precisely the level of danger we find ourselves in today. COVID-19 will only be defeated if Kenyans stand shoulder-to-shoulder and take up arms.

In war, victory is assured by united armies that pursue the singular aim of subjugating the enemy. Our victory will be to suffer minimal harm, and to shorten the length of the war.

It is time to get realistic as parents, brothers, sisters, friends, colleagues and neighbours. Look at those around you that you love dearly and care about.

They are the people that your actions are going to impact going forward. You do not want to mourn them, and they do not want to mourn you.

The power is in your hands to save them. Wear a mask and wash your hands because you are a responsible and caring person, not because the Government is telling you to do so.

We all have to step up to being responsible. This is especially the case with leaders, particularly the elected ones.

All measures announced today shall be applied to all citizens regardless of their social or political standing.

When we de-escalated 21 days ago, I said that I would not hesitate to re-escalate again if reckless behavior is widespread.

Accordingly, in response to today’s resolutions from my consultation with the Governors, and on the advice of the National Security Council and the National Emergency Response Committee on the Coronavirus Pandemic, I further order and direct as follows:

I. The Nationwide Curfew shall remain in force for a further 30 days.

II. There will be no sale of alcoholic drinks and beverages in eateries and restaurants across the Territory of the Republic of Kenya, effective at midnight today, for the next 30 days.

III. The closing time for restaurants and eateries has been amended from 8pm to 7pm, starting today at midnight, for the next 30 days.

IV. Bars shall remain closed until further notice.

V. That the Inspector–General of the National Police Service shall cause withdrawal of all licenses for bars operating in breach of this directive.

VI. That the Inspector General shall file a weekly return of all bars whose licenses have been withdrawn to the Cabinet Secretary for Interior and Co-ordination of National Government.

VII. That the Inspector General of Police shall ensure that his officers spare no mheshimiwa, or individual, regardless of social status or rank, who is either out after curfew or who flaunts the health protocols without being an essential worker. The rules are for all of us, and rank or status does not exempt you from them.

VIII. That the National Government Administration Officers and the National Police Service will strictly enforce Ministry of Health protocols on public gatherings, and particularly funerals.

IX. That strict personal sanction will ensue to all police and National Administration officers in whose areas of jurisdiction there is breach of the set guidelines.

X. That the Ministry of Health will develop a protocol to temporarily retain retired anesthetists and ICU staff to support the medical staff assigned to dealing with serious COVID-19 cases in the Counties.

XI. That any Government Institutions including all sporting facilities, stadia and educational institutions and other Government facilities, upon designation by the Cabinet Secretary for Health as a public health facility, shall be availed to the Ministry of Health for Isolation and Quarantine purposes.

If, and when, necessary, these measures will be made even more stringent. We will do this without hesitation because we hold precious the life of every Kenyan.

We also understand that our economic health as a country is ultimately tied to keeping our infections and fatalities as low as possible. There will be little tourism, scarce investment and falling trade if our 6 headlines start to match those of countries that have been hardest hit by the pandemic.

I want to thank the Governors for the efforts they are making. I have been encouraged to note that over 70% of County Governments have met the set irreducible minimum we agreed on a few weeks ago.

This is only the start. I have urged them to do more to reach full compliance and to go even further. I have promised to work with them to help keep Kenyans working and producing as much as possible during this time.

Let me remind Kenyans that this is not a competition, not between counties and National Government, not amongst counties, not between political groupings, this is a war that we shall either drown together of hold each other up and see the glory of God as we celebrate victory against this invisible enemy.

In closing, let us salute the sacrifices made by our frontline staff the medical care workers who have unflinchingly sustained our war against COVID-19.

We honour the soul of the first health care worker to succumb to the coronavirus: Dr. Doreen Adisa Lugaliki. May perpetual light shine upon her oh Lord and grant her family and particularly her twins, who have been robbed the gift of a mother too early.

We extend our gratitude too to our law enforcement officers for their valiant acts. 36. We thank God for his Grace and Mercy, and pray to him to save the souls of those we have lost this pandemic.

Thank you.

Mount Kenya University (MKU) is the recipient of the Talloires Network Innovative Civic Engagement Award, 2020.

The award winning project titled “Co-creation strategies for improving the health of children and access to safe water in a time of crisis” is part of the University Award for Innovative Civic Engagement, a program established by the Talloires Network in partnership with Open Society Foundations.

After a competitive review process, the Selection Committee was impressed by the partnership, and wishes to recognize and support (Mount Kenya University) continued civic engagement work. The University Award for Innovative Civic Engagement aims to discover, learn from, and support the leadership of novel university civic engagement partnerships that connect universities and local communities in ways that contribute to more equal and more inclusive societies. MKU has been awarded in recognition of the involvement of the students, staff and University leaders in implementation of community-based activities in Kenyan communities in partnership with Partners for Care (PFC).

Some of the joint activities considered during the award process include distribution of over 10,000 water backpacks that provide access to safe water transport and storage for hundreds of thousands of people; treatment of over 1000 jigger infested pupils and eradication of jigger infestations in Marsabit leading to improved school performance; and involvement of students and members of staff in community outreach programs. anti-jigger campaigns in Marsabit and Watamu, safe water programme using the water backpack as well as the mobility programme.

The joint activities are managed through a joint MKU/PFC committee of 5 members, 2 nominated by each institution and a committee chairperson nominated every two years by the head of either institutions on a rotational basis. The committee is currently chaired by Dr. Peter G. Kirira, Ag. Principal College of Graduate Studies & Research. As part of the award, the University will receive $20,000 to support distribution of water backpacks and hand wash units during COVID-19 pandemic in different parts of the country and to reach an additional 3,500 pupils with jigger infestation in Watamu, Kilifi County. In addition, Talloires Network will sponsor a member of the University faculty to the Talloires Network Leaders Conference at Harvard University in September 2021. Other recipients of the award include Meridian Global University, Cameroon; Universidad Veracruzana, Mexico; National Autonomous University of Nicaragua and the University of Zimbabwe.


In 2004 One of my colleagues, in the program I was working in asked me whether We would like to join them for a movie. I was in Oslo, Norway and the Norwegians have a funny way of inviting you, especially when they really want you to be there. She told us that the new movie would premier in Oslo and that we had to book in advance.

The movie titled Troy, revolved around the story of ancient Greece and the epic battle between ancient kingdoms of Sparta and Troy. While paying a visit to the Spartan King, Menelaus, the Prince from Troy, Prince Paris, falls for Hellen, the wife of King Menelaus and takes her back to Troy.

King Agamenmon, brother to King Menelaus uses this as an excuse to declare war against Troy, the last kingdom preventing his control over Aegean sea.

In the past few years and lately in the last few months, we have heard leaders all across the country, tell us that so and so is not good for the country or for the county, and that they do not have Wanjiku or Kenya at heart. And that so and so comes from a family of colonial collaborators or people who cannot be entrusted.

As many of you students of history will remember, there are many places and moments in Kenya where our destiny has been decided and shaped. Many of these places and moments were sights of war, demonstrations and riots, while others are sights that symbolises the daring characters of Kenyan people. Places like Kamukunji Stadium, Uhuru Park, Karura Forest, and the Mt. Kenya forest.

Other places are symbols of defiance, peace, debates and reasons. Places like Ufungamano house, Bomas of Kenya, Jeevanjee Gardens, the Lancaster House, University of Nairobi, Parliament and Nairobi Serena Hotel.

The land of Kenya in the last 100 years or so has seen a lot of things, the indignity of colonisation and tribal wars, the tyranny of oppressive regimes and the push for the boundaries of freedoms and democracy, The yoke of political intolerance and the death of many Kenyans in the ensuing violence and the determination of Kenyans.

For the love of country and future generations, our forefathers determined to get rid of Colonisation left their families, went into the forest and waged a war against the colonial oppressors.

The Love for Country is not a preserve of a few. No one can claim to be more Kenyan than the other. Neither can anyone claim to love this country more than the other. Loving this country cannot be monopolised.

The destiny and pride of this country has been shaped by ordinary men and women who were not of high status or esteem and not from one tribe or religion. These men and women had faith in God, Love for their Country and Hope for the future Generations. They had no big physique, armies or elected offices, but they led a Nation.

Loving this Country requires the occasional disruption the willingness to speak up and being self critical. It requires shaking the status quo. Loving this country requires the realisation that we do not hold the monopoly of knowing how others should love it. Or to compel others to love it the way we do. Loving this country requires more than just wearing a T-shirt written "I love Kenya".

The Kenyan spirit, dreams and hope that led the MauMau to pick up farm tools and weapons to fight the Colonial regime, is the same spirit that led the likes of James Orengo, Paul Muite, Reverend Timothy Njoya, Jaramogi Odinga, and Kenneth Matiba to pick up the microphone, brave the teargas and batons, and fight the one party rule in Kenya to push the boundaries of freedom.

It's the same spirit that led Wangari Maathai to stand up against the grabbers of Karura forest and Uhuru park. It's the same spirit that led Davinder Lamber, Prof Kibutha Kibwana, Kephta Ombati among others to push for Electoral reforms and the change of constitution.

The Kenyan spirit the MauMau had, Is the same spirit that resides in Catherine Ndereba, Paul Tergat, John Ngugi, Abbas Magongo, Henry Mutego and the Danson brothers. It is the Same spirit that resides in Mama Kayai, and Inspekta Mwala.

This is the same spirit that led Kenyans to migrate across the borders and the seas to 'dare abroad' . From the Arab deserts to the Rocky mountains of Afghanistan. From the fields Laikipia all the way to the Russian snow and the Mogadishu weather.

Kenya is not some fragile glass that would break if all of us were allowed to love it equally. We are the Country of the Mpesa innovation that has defined financial access even to the first world countries such as Sweden. We are the country of Wangari Maathai the Nobel peace prize winner and Eliud Kipchoge who proved No human is limited.

We are the land of Kimani Maruge who despite his age of 80 years answered to the call of education in the introduction of Universal access to primary Education. We are the land of Simon Gicharu who defied the odds to create the biggest private University in Kenya and arguably East Africa.

We are the land of Peter Tabichi, The Global Teacher Prize winner who has been giving away 80 percent of his Salary to educate the poor.

We are the land of Donatus Njoroge, the Global innovation award winner who developed a way to manage post harvest losses in grains. We are Kenyans, that's who we are.

If we are to measure up to the dreams of our fore fathers and the hope for the  future generations, then we are called upon to posses a sense of moral imagination. We are called upon to understand that none of us can claim the right to love this country more than the others and none of us can stop the other from loving this country.

We must stop this behaviour of thinking that some of us are more Kenyan than the others. It will not help address our challenges in education and access to justice. It will not help address the climate change, environmental challenges or food security. It will not help us develop the economy of the Kenyan people.

We must refuse the temptation to use every opportunity to look for an excuse to fight each other.

Juma Hemedi

Thika West Deputy County Commissioner (DCC) Douglas Mutai has expressed his concerns over the manner in which residents behaved so casually despite the danger posed by COVID-19.

Speaking during a function to receive food hampers donated by the staff of Thika's Equity Bank Kenyatta Highway Branch, Mutai pleaded with the people to really take care as the number of those infected was skyrocketing each day.

"We are sitting on a timed bomb, fighting an enemy we cannot see, touch nor feel but which is very real. COVID-19 is here with us and mostly hitting the young and very productive segment of the society. We cannot afford to treat this disease normally as it is likely to wipe out a generation," he said.

He cautioned that the recent cases of COVID-19 infections at Thika and Makongeni Police cells were a cause for worry and could erupt into a menace if people were not careful.

On Friday 17th July, 20 out of the over 70 inmates whose tests were done from Thika and Makongeni Police stations have turned positive of the coronavirus.

Out of these cases, 17 are from Makongeni Police Station with Thika holding 3 of the results that have already been released.
The DCC thanked the staff  at the branch for their gesture which he said would go a long way in cushioning those who were hardest hit by the COVID-19 socio-economic purge.

"From this donations, we target to feed about 50 widows and orphans across the sub-county. The situation out there is very dire as very many people still need food assistance," he said.

The branch Manager Isaac Kamau said that their gesture was driven by the urge to contribute to the well-being of the residents they served after realising that majority of them suffered from the effects of the pandemic.

He promised to continue assisting where they could, both as a company and as individuals.

Thika District Business Association (TDBA) Chairman Alfred Wanyoike acknowledged Equity Bank's contribution towards the welfare of both the residents and business community in Thika. He urged them not to relent and also promised to render the community support when called upon.

20 out of the over 70 inmates whose tests were done last week from Thika and Makongeni Police stations have turned positive of the coronavirus.
Out of these cases, 17 are from Makongeni Police Station with Thika holding 3 of the results that have already been released.
The cases are expected to rise after all the results are received. The stations are yet to receive the outcome of the rest of the inmates and those of 25 police officers who were tested last week following the discovery of the initial two cases.

The 20 are now receiving treatment at the Thika Kenya Medical Training College (KMTC) Isolation Centre.

On July 9, two people held at the two stations tested positive for COVID-19 and transferred to KU Referral Hospital.

Considering that these latest victims are convicts and remandees who have to be taken to court now and then, there is concern among the officers that there might be a spike in the spread of the virus within and without the stations. The same officers who interact with the inmates on a daily basis later mingle with fellow officers and the general public.
Those who spoke to 3T in condition of anonymity feel the need for the Ministry of Health and the Public Health Department to conduct some mass testing among the officers as well as any of the suspected contact.

Kiambu Gov. James Nyoro says Thika Municipality, which basically constitutes of Thika and Juja constituencies, will benefit from Sh. 305 million infrastructure, sewer and street lighting projects this financial year with support from the World Bank under the Kenya Urban Support Program( KUSP). The projects include: ☞ Re-carpeting of 2.5Km Kenyatta Highway ☞ Re-carpeting of Upper Rd-KRA-Stadium roads ☞ Tarmacking of Makutano-Muguga township access roads (2Km) and street lighting. ☞ Installation of 100 streetlights within Thika town and repair of another 100 streetlights along Kenyatta Highway ☞ Construction of a 4.7Km secondary sewer distribution system at Muigai Inn Daima Estate ☞ Installation of 187 streetlights at various areas in Juja. While in a tour in Thika East and West sub-counties, the governor acknowledged the fact that Kiambu was the second most populous county in the country, and with it, urbanisation had become a great issue. This, he said, necessitated for a big budgetary allocation towards roads and urban development. "The County Government has appreciated fully the principles of devolution and embraced the concept of urban management as envisaged in the Urban Areas and Cities Act (UACA)," he said. "In that regard, the government has enacted and gazetted Municipal Charters for the six municipalities Thika, Limuru, Kikuyu, Karuri, Kiambu and Ruiru. With support from the World Bank under the Kenya Urban Support Program( KUSP) the County Government has initiated projects such as construction of urban roads, installation of security lights, bus parks and pedestrian walkways," he added.

By Dr. Gaitho

Finally after witnessing the pendulum behaviour of our education leadership with regard to resumption of schools and the uncertainty of when or whether the final exams will be conducted, the Cabinet Secretary has spoken and asserted that the academic calendar year 2020 is lost.  The die has been cast, the candidates and other learners now have a glimpse of their education path.  The parents are relieved, they can now plan.
We in the academia are of the opinion that there is a lot that need to be done as we move forward since education is here to stay.  While we cannot rule out a recurrence of a similar scenario whether caused by a pandemic or act of God,  the current scenario must be a lesson to us and should it replay in future, the lessons learnt shall be applied to avoid “losing” yet another year.

KNEC involvement
KNEC has been absent throughout the school life of learners. It is high time that this body was called upon to rethink how to be involved in every examination throughout the school terms of a student and not wait at the tail end for eight (8) and (four) 4 years to examine candidates.  You see, KNEC waits for all the work to be done by various stakeholders and appear at the tail end of a pupil or student’s education life and then appear to determine the future of their education.

The question is, how much does KNEC participate in students' education progression to appear as a sieve and hence judge and condemn or otherwise the success or failure of a long journey that it was never involved in?  Is KNEC main purpose for its existence to determine who through a single exam deserve to progress to the next level?  KNEC should ponder along this line and maybe may see the light. 

We need to look at different systems of education like the way IGCSE/GCSE system of education is synchronized (I stand corrected). In Kenya we could have a hybrid that will have a mutual benefit to the learners.  This way, the candidates are awarded grades to progress to the next level based on progression throughout the schooling life and not a one-off examination that will determine the eight or four years spent in school.

We have a lot of hope and support for the success of the Competency-Based Curriculum (CBC) system because in it there is a chance to up the game and salvage what appear to be a desperate situation not only for learners but education stakeholders.

Dr Vincent G. Gaitho, Ph.D.)
Pro Chancellor – Mount Kenya University

MKU Vice-Chancellor Prof Stanley Waudo has challenged institutions of higher learning to
equip youths with the necessary knowledge and skills to be successful professionals.

Waudo says at Mount Kenya University the learning environment is fashioned for learners in a
way that makes them ready for the job market once they graduate.

This after a recent study by research firm CPS International ranked MKU graduates among the
best in the job market.

The survey also ranked MKU as a university of choice among the tops private universities in the
Country and beyond.

The Vice Chancellor welcomed the decision to re-open institutions of higher learning albeit in
strict conformity to the set guidelines even as he acknowledged that digital learning is now the

Prof Waudo said they have put in place adequate measures to ensure their students access quality
yet affordable education especially during the COVID 19 pandemic period.

“The university produces skilled graduates who are not only employable but have the necessary
skills for self employment,” he said.

He said the university has embraced an innovative teaching, learning and assessment strategy
which is appropriate for its learners. 

Prof Waudo says the university academic structure encourages progression from certificate,
diploma to degree levels and by doing so offers a platform for everyone to acquire skills needed
in the job market.

MKU has developed new programmes, which have been accredited by the Commission for
University Education to broaden its capacity.

There are various modes of learning for the students with some on fulltime, others on digital
(online teaching and learning), while some opts for part-time learning. 

Prof Waudo says digital learning has now taken center stage due to the restrictions brought about
by COVID 19 pandemic and the University has had to boost its infrastructure since a majority of
students have embraced e-learning.

Immediate Ex- Witeithie OCS Aden Dekow. He was showered with praise for splendid work during his 3 months stay at the station.

Police officers have been advised to plan for their retirement early enough and shape their social life in order to avoid frustrations.

Waweru Njoroge, a businessperson from Witeithie noted that quite a good number of officers forget to marry and start families because of infrequent job transfers.

He pleaded with them to strike a balance between life and official duties.

“I urge you to organize your lives for a better future. You cannot work tirelessly to serve and forget that you have another life. It’s important to strike a balance between work, marriage and other facets of life,” said Njoroge.

Speaking during a farewell party for the outgoing Witeithie Chief Inspector Aden Dekow who was transferred to Meru, the businessperson insisted that men in uniform should live a normal life that encompass enjoying their marriages and having a good time with their families.

Juja Sub-County Police Commander Dorothy Migarusha echoed Njoroge’s sentiments and urged her colleagues to prepare for the future in advance.

“As we continue to serve, let us not forget where we came from. Let us live knowing we will go back home in whatever circumstances. Let us also put our families together and be open to them on our modalities of operations,” she said.

The police boss also urged the officers to keep track of the kids they have sired “in different places” and support them conclusively.

At the same time, Witeithie residents rooted for establishment of a fully-fledged police station at the sprawling village to heighten security as well as bring closer home policing services to the informal settlement.

Installation of a new station at Witeithie, which was gazetted in February this year, would mean separation from the current Juja Police station.

Juja Sub-County AP Commander Lydia Macharia said the out gone OCS Aden Dekow had worked closely with the local community.

In Coming OCS Martin Murimi, said he would strive to enforce the law to the letter without fear or favour.


Last year during a governance training organised by Institute of Internal Auditors in Kenya IIA, one of the presenters in an afternoon session had a PowerPoint slide with this quote;

"If Management is about running a business, Governance is seeing that the business is run right"

Applying this quote in county Government structures, Management would mean County executive and Governance would mean County assemblies. There are times when these two institutions have had serious conflicts with each other as they try to act Ultra vires or as they attempt to outdo each other.

Article 183 on the Functions of County Executive Committees state that;

(2) A county executive committee MAY prepare proposed legislation for consideration by the county assembly.

(3) The county Executive committee SHALL provide the county assembly with full and regular reports on matters relating to the county.

The county government Act of 2012 gives the roles of members of the county Assembly

(2) states that; a member of the county Assembly shall not be directly or indirectly be involved in the-

 a) Executive functions of the County.  government and its administration; or

b)  Delivery of services as if the member were an officer or employee of the county government.

Recently we witnessed the Impeachment proceedings against Kirinyaga Governor both at the Kirinyaga County assembly and also at the Senate. Late last year we had witnessed the removal of former Kiambu Governor Ferdinand Waititu.

During the Kirinyaga assembly tabling and discussion of the impeachment motion, Emotions and tears went high as different arguments as to whether or not to pass the motion. Some members of the county Assembly were thrown out of the debate chambers by the orderlies.

But It was at the Senate when issues became clearer. One of the fun moments was when the Nominated MCA representing the youth was asked if he voted for the motion for which he replied to the negative. Then he was asked if he voted against the motion, again he replied to the negative. He was then asked if he abstained from voting again he replied No.

In dismissing the Allegation by the Kirinyaga County Assembly, Governor Ann Waiguru termed the issues that the MCAs had presented as "mere administrative issues and here-says that failed the test of and cannot amount to gross violation of the Constitution. And that they were a waste of The Assembly, and senate time.

That they were witch hunting allegations because she had refused some of the bulldozing, threats and attempts by the county assembly members to interfere with the running of the executive.

Granted, there have been a lot of instances where service delivery has been affected as a result of these conflicts between these two critical institutions of the county Governments.
When he was faced with these threats by MCAs, Makueni Governor Kibutha Kibwana triggered the dissolution clause and asked the president to dissolve the County. An invitation that the president declined after he received the special task force report.

This is not to say that Governors have been right and that the MCAs have been wrong. Some Governors have attempted to control the county Assemblies and decide the leaderships of the Assemblies and the membership of various Assembly Committees. While others introduced policies that brought service delivery to a halt and totally disregarded the principles of good management and effective governance.

Among the Roles of MCAs in the county assemblies are to ATTEND sessions of the county assembly and its committee as well as PRESENT Views, Opinions and proposals of the electorate to the County Assembly. That would ensure that they play their Representation Role effectively.

There is also the question of Legislation. The last seven years of devolution have seen many laws passed by County Assemblies either litigated through the courts or criticised for failing the Quality test. That also included the notices of motions, various bills including finance bills and many others. The question is whether County assemblies attract serious professionals and whether those elected and nominated can comprehend what their role is?

Senate and the National Assembly is Comprised of individuals with different backgrounds and professions. They comprise an almost good majority and even the substance of the debate and content is of good quality.

I think its about time we strengthened the oversight role of County assemblies by asking professionals such as Accountants, Engineers, Planners, Surveyors, Auditors, Lawyers, social and development experts, Economists, Educationists, Agriculture Experts, Doctors, Environmentalists, Humanitarians to seek and get elected in these positions.

That way the right questions will be asked while doing oversight to the Executive and right answers will be given. Without wasting time and appearing as though the assembly is on a witch hunt or a fishing expedition.

We can't have individuals who have no idea what it means to support, oppose, or abstain from voting means, and others staying away from debates and voting. Neither should we have individuals in the assembly asking whether the Governor refunded or accounted for an imprest.

The Electric Light did not come as a result of Continuous improvement of the Candle. We must have quality individuals in these assemblies.

Are the Professionals listening? You must Stand up and be counted.

Juma Hemedi


1 Staff Protection

The Public transport operators will take the following measures to protect staff, crew and passengers from infection and cross infection by:

i. Enforcing of the required COVID-19 prevention protocols which includes thermal screening, hand washing/sanitization, and use of face masks by customers, staff, crew and passengers before entering offices, vehicles, and work places to minimize the risk of spreading the virus.

ii. Providing adequate and quality Personal Protective Equipment (PPEs) to the staff.

iii. Ensuring that all staff wear appropriately the face masks as recommended by the government.

iv. Providing contact free temperature recording device at appropriate points.

v. Isolating any member of staff and crew on duty whose body temperature is 37.5° C (99.5°F) or higher for further evaluation.
Where a suspected passenger is identified on board before departure, the crew should immediately call 719 for guidance.

vi. Undertake cleaning and disinfection of offices and vehicles using standard detergents and disinfectants on a regular basis.

vii. Providing and placing hand wash facilities and/or hand sanitizers at all access points to encourage hand hygiene.

viii.Ensuring that offices are well ventilated to minimize air recirculation and allow the use of fresh air.

ix. Providing waste bins with a liner where used face masks could be disposed of safely.

x. Ensuring physical distancing of 1.5Metres is maintained in the work place and when boarding.


The public transport operators will:
i. Maintain and keep passenger manifest for all long distance trip for a minimum period of one month before destroying them.

ii. Provide without undue delay and without prejudice to applicable data protection rules, the following data to the relevant public health authorities upon request for contact tracing purposes:
  a. Full name;
  b. Nationality;
  c. Passport or Identification Number;
  d. Telephone number;
  e. Allocated seat, and
  f. Usual residence

iii. Ensure that the driver’s contact address is prominently displayed for any reference.

iv. Sensitize passengers on safety measures before departure for the distance journey.

v. Ensure that every public service vehicle have waste bins with a liner for safe waste disposal.

In addition to practicing the hygiene measures of frequent hand washing with soap and use of 70% alcohol based sanitizers, the crew will take the following precautions to protect themselves and the passengers:

i. Shall prominently display inside of the vehicle number of seats available to ensure that the number of passengers on board does not exceed the recommended sitting capacity during the COVID-19 period as follows:
      a. 14 seater – allowed sitting capacity of 10 including the driver and crew
      b. 33 seater – allowed sitting capacity of 18 including the driver and crew
      c. 51 seater – allowed sitting capacity of 30 including the driver and crew
      d. In case of a motor cycle/bodaboda, only one pillion passenger shall be carried
      e. TukTuk shall only be allowed to carry one passenger at any time (MOH to consider review of the directive to allow tuktuk to carry two passengers), and
      f. For a five (5) seater car – a maximum of 3 passengers (provided in the law), however, the law is silent on the number of passengers for a seven seater cars.
      g. Proposing that for a seven (7) seater car – a maximum of 5 passengers

ii. Shall ensure that all passengers are hand sanitized before boarding.

iii. The crew are encouraged to use surgical face masks at all time during the journey because of the high risk of contracting and spreading the virus due to exposure from huge customers interacting with them daily.

iv. Ensure proper air ventilation of the vehicle while on transit to minimize 7 air recirculation and allow the use of fresh air.

v. Shall not allow any hawking in order to reduce the risk of contamination while on transit.

vi. No unnecessary stop-overs while on transit and if possible make non-stop journey to decrease the risk of contamination posed by unnecessary contact with the local population and other travelers.

vii. The crew will make constant on-board announcements reminding passengers on the need to uphold personal precautionary measures to use face masks at all times while onboard.

viii.Disembarkation at the destination will be conducted by rows starting with the closest rows to the exits in order to ensure physical distancing to the maximum extent possible and avoid queues.

ix. The crew shall ensure that the vehicle is disinfected after every trip.


For the management of a suspected passenger on board, the following measures should be adhered to:

i. If a person shows signs and symptoms suggestive of COVID-19, the crew should immediately call 719 for further advice and or drive into the next offsite pre-identified gazetted health care facility.

ii. The crew shall ensure the respective passenger is wearing and continues to wear a face mask in order to limit the spread of contaminated droplets with the potential spread of COVID-19.  In addition, the driver should provide a surgical face mask and the suspect should be encouraged to use coughing and sneezing etiquette.

iii. After removal of the COVID-19 suspect, cleaning and disinfection of the vehicle should be performed before proceeding with the journey.

With the advent of the COVID-19 pandemic, so many companies were hard hit by the socio-economic conditions that were brought about by the strict government measures aimed at curbing the spread of this disease.
Many of them closed down and laid down their workforce or reduced their production.
Thika Cloths Mills, a major player in the textile industry in the country, was among the companies which felt the heat of these drastic measures.
The lockdowns and shutting of all learning institutions, impacted negatively to the factory forcing it to close down.
However, the management through local arrangement with the workers representatives have been paying the workers half-pay while at home.
Though the company can employ more than 2,000 workers, it is yet to open up fully.
Before COVID-19, it had employed 700 workers and supporting over 500 cotton farmers in Ndalani. There is a ray of hope however after the government came up with some recovery plan in order to save investors.
Thika Cloth Mills has now been awarded a tender to manufacture clothing materials for Kenya Wildlife Services (KWS) among others.
TCM CEO Tejal Dhodhia has thanked President Uhuru Kenyatta for keeping his word and putting much consideration on the manufacturing especially at this time of COVID-19.
She challenged other Kenyans to take advantage of government programmes especially in line with the Big 4 Agenda where manufacturing and industrialization was one of the key pillars of Uhuru’s legacy.
She said the factory was also making materials for Kitui governor Charity Ngilu’s KICOTEC factory that has been contracted by the government to make masks for schools and uniforms for Chiefs and their assistants.
“We were severely hit by this pandemic and were wondering on what we would do to our cotton farmers whom we have been supporting from Ndalani in Machakos, Kitui and other parts of the country because they have a bumper harvest and we are supposed to go and buy the cotton with Kitui Ginery this month”. Said Tejal.
She is optimistic that things will return back to normalcy and especially during this time when the president is expected to open the economy next week.
The “Buy Kenya Build Kenya initiative has also been supported by Thika Town MP Eng. Patrick Wainaina who has tabled a bill in Parliament in a bid to discourage unfair importation of goods from China and other parts of the world a bill he says has taken shape after he recently gave the minister for Industrialization a list of over 3000 items he wants importation ceased.
Wainaina described these importation as a major threat to the local economy adding that it was one of the main contributor of the wanton unemployment crisis in the country.
He said he fully supported Uhuru Muigai Kenyatta Big 4 Agenda saying it is the only software to assure economic stability in the country.

Thika MP Eng. Patrick Wainaina (left) and Thika West DCC Douglas Mutai presenting a cheque to one of the beneficiaries.

45 small business groups drawn from the various wards within Thika Town Constituency on Friday got a major boost when they received cheques amounting to KES. 4.8 million from UWEZO Fund.

The entities who included bodaboda operators, Jua Kali artisans and poultry farmers received the cash following rigorous training on prudent financial management.

While distributing the cheques, area MP Eng. Patrick Wainaina described small business enterprises as the growers of any economy since they created value at the lowest cadre of the community cadre.

He urged the youth, women and persons living with disability to take the advantage of such interest free loans to better their livelihoods. He also urged upcoming entrepreneurs to source for financing from other financial institutions in order to supplement whatever money they had as seed capital.

He lauded the government for banning importation of various locally manufactured goods thereby helping Kenyans to buy and build Kenyan products.

Through capacity building, Wainaina stated that Kenyans have continued to display great potential in technological discovery of societal solutions most needed in the country.

Some of the beneficiaries narrated how their businesses had been hit hard by the socio-economic times since the advent of COVID-19 pandemic.

They said that measures set to beat the spread of COVID-19 had resulted to an increase in operating expenses for businesses pushing majority of micro and small businesses, particularly those in the service industry to the blink of collapse.


I was informed by Wakapogy our "Boy's Club" defacto leader to immediately convene the "boy's club meeting the following day at our assembly point at 'Kingstone Base'. There was an urgent disciplinary matter that needed to be discussed and as the 'chief whip I complied. 

Without being geniuses we knew what the matter was, Ngimwa also known as Mwangi had had an altercation with Wakapogi and from the rumours we had heard, it didn't go well. It was Wakapogi who had invited Ngimwa into the "gedesh'. 

I was with Iddi when wakapogi gave me the instructions, so without wasting time we started with Daddy and informed him of the meeting, the time and the place. Next we went to Wamasha and he was informed. 

We went round Majengo selectively inviting only members of our "gedesh" (squad) and those who believed in our ideals. When we arrived at kina Chaao's place we noticed his mum outside, so we pretended that we were only passing through to the other side. The good thing with Majengo those days was that you could enter and exit anywhere. There were no gates or fences. 

Unfortunately she had noticed us and without naming names she said that she had seen some 'daimonos' around who were out to 'spoil' his son. We did not need a dictionary to understand that those 'daimonos' being mentioned were us. So we took big steps faster (kukanyaga kubwa kubwa haraka upesi). 

Chaao was critical to this meeting and we had to devise a way of getting him out of the house,  so we tried our secret whistle and also our unique laugh. But none worked. So Iddi came up with his ingenious idea of throwing stones on their roof. And he did throw the stone. You see sometimes the devil just waits for you to do an innocent act for him to make you his friend. 

The stone did hit the roof, but it missed Chaao's mum by a whisker. Silence followed then all hell broke loose she appeared carrying a broom and the stone we had thrown and spoke words that we could not hear and understand since they were a mixture of various Kenyan languages to the effect that she had no problem dispatching us to our maker, but most importantly because we were running for our dear lives. 

We assembled at the 'kingstone base' the following day to hear what the issue was about our defacto leader arrived, accompanied with Daddy and we were told that we should not associate with 'Ngimwa' and that he was no longer a member of our 'gedesh'. 

Chaao joined us later and was briefed on the proceedings. Since no one had any hunting, fishing plans or any information about "raaru" (indian hot spicy food that we would eat at the Shree hindu Temple in Thika), we decided to 'relax' at the base after Wakapogi had left. 

Then Ngimwa appeared and asked me and Iddi to go with him that his mum had asked for us. We arrived at his home but his mum was nowhere to be seen, that's when he told us that they had cooked Chapatis and that his mum had said "ni za wageni" and had not counted. So he thought it wise to invite "wageni". We were glad that he had thought of us so highly and made us his 'special guests' out of the long list of people in the 'gedesh'. 

You see just incase you don't know it was written in the "chapati constitution and rules that were published before we were born, that as a mother once you finish cooking Chapatis you had to count how many they were. This was done for accountability purposes and to deal with those rascals like us who had a habit of taking more than others. 

For a majengo mother to have cooked chapatis and failed to count, while she has a "boyshaod" in the house, that was like the greatest crime and blunder of all time. 

We have no idea how many chapatis we had between the three of us, but we were still chewing and talking when we heard slaps and 'slippers za Red' landing on our heads and backs with Ngimwa's mum shouting things to the effect that the Chapatis were for her visitors who were to come for prayers.

Apparently she had reached Bismillahi and remembered that she had forgotten to count the chapatis and had decided to come back quickly. 

We were chased away with slippers following us as we took the nearest corner to disappear. We stopped at "barabara ya chini" to catch our breath, then Iddi pulled half a chapati from his pocket and started eating he had managed to hold on to it.

This kind of deceit of being invited as a 'special unwanted guest' has to stop. I now agree with Wakapogi our leader. Ngimwa has to go. Ngimwa must go!!! 

Juma Hemedi

A woman from landless estate in Thika town has called on President Uhuru Kenyatta to heed to his promise to help her restart life after a family saga that turned her life to a beggar.

Mary Kamuguna is a mother of three who received the attention of the head of state during a December last year visit to Ruiru where he had come to open a Catholic Church with the president assuring her of support.

In a courageous move, the woman arose from her seat in the church and moved towards the President pleading for his help only to be blocked by the President’s security, a scuffle that caught the President’s attention.

The President told his bodyguards to let the woman reach out to him and was able to narrate her ordeal to the head of state, which touched the President.

He shared a phone number where the woman can reach him for help. However, after a few days, she lost her phone which contained the numbers, cutting communication.

This is after the President settled hospital bills for his son, who has been in hospital suffering from depression.

The woman claims to have been living a good life with his husband, bought land and constructed a house only to be divorced three years later.

After being reduced to nothing, life took a nasty twist as her 23 years old son went to depression and was admitted to various hospitals.

Her property was destroyed by the co-wife and her sisters and was chased out of her home. After which her elder brother accommodated her elsewhere since her brother could not afford to pay her rent.

She later moved to landless where she was sheltered and sympathized by James Njoroge who allowed her to live in an empty house in his plot as she takes care of his garden.

“We were blessed with a boy. We were doing well as we had bought a plot and were in the process of settling down only for him to inform me that he had another wife some years ago and were planning to get back together. He repossessed all what we had,” she said.

Every time the son visits his mother and finds her in the sorry state she lives in, the depression increases and he gets readmitted to seek medication.

She says the President claimed to not only clear the hospital bill but also fund her to restart life.

She has since lost the mobile phone that contains the contacts that the President gave him.

Her hope is the President would remember her and continue to support her to restart life again.

“If it were not for me losing my mobile phone, I would still be in contact and maybe would have received more help. He allowed me to meet him and has already helped settle the hospital bills of my depressed son. I hope he still remembers my ordeal and that he would support me,” she said.

Kamunga, at the moment does gardening of vegetables at a plot whose owner has allowed her to live in a cottage adjacent to the plot. The house she is living in is not habitable since cannot afford a decent living. She takes care of the garden and sells the produce for her boss.

She is now reminding the president to remember her since she is going through so much problems and doesn’t have money to treat the son who needs medication.

Three people have succumbed to the deadly COVID-19 in Thika within the last 48 hours.

On Tuesday, a 71-year old Kiboko estate was rushed to hospital and after a while succumbed. Test results later came out positive of COVID-19.

The second case is that of a 65-year old man from Kiganjo Muthaiga area who succumbed to the disease while undergoing treatment at Thika Level 5 Hospital. He will be buried today at their Matuu home in accordance to the Ministry of Health directives.

His wife has already tested positive and is undergoing treatment at the same hospital.

Last night a 64-year old from Kiandutu also died at the Thika Level 5 Hospital.

Information reaching our news desk indicate that the Thika Public Health Officials are busy making arrangements of how these people will be buried and later embark on a contact tracing exercise in all the affected areas.

There is also going to be fumigation in areas that they might have gotten into contact.

Residents are cautioned to strictly adhere to the guidelines set by the Health Ministry avoid contracting the disease. Anyone who thinks they got into any of these cases should seek for testing or visit any hospital.

However, there should not be any cause of alarm or any form of stigmisation as the disease is treatable and not necessarily a death sentence.

In yesterday press briefing by the Ministry of Health where 173 new COVID-19 cases were reported, Thika had registered 3 of them.

300 students who have been shortlisted for Safaricom Foundation’s Technical and Vocational Education and Training (TVET) programme will begin online classes on 22nd June.
The Foundation has partnered with Zizi Afrique Foundation and ToolKit iSkills, a social enterprise organisation, to roll out a TVET programme with a focus on Plumbing, Welding, Food and Beverage and Electrical Engineering.
Over 70 students who do not have access to smartphones will receive free devices courtesy of Safaricom Foundation to enable them access eLearning materials as they await re-opening of learning institutions.
“We want to empower the students who have been shortlisted for the Safaricom Foundation TVET scholarship programme to commence learning even as we wait for this COVID-19 period to end. The students who have been enrolled for the programme have not been able to attend classes because of the partial lockdown and we want to enable them begin classes via online platforms”, Said Steve Chege, Trustee, Safaricom Foundation.
The programme that was launched in March will see an ICT enabled Skills Center set up in Nairobi’s Waithaka Vocational Training Centre and close to 1,000 students receive TVET scholarships over the next two years across various institutions.
“Through this scholarship programme, we want to reach some of the most vulnerable youth from across the country and give them access to training opportunities in employable areas, and increase transition to employment”, said Renaldah Mjomba from Zizi Afrique.
The first cohort consists of 100 students who will be based at the Waithaka Vocational Training Centre and another 200 who will be spread across 12 other institutions around the country.
An analysis by Higher Education Loans Board shows that employability is at 96% for people with Technical and Vocational Education and Training compared to 40% among those with a university degree. However, TVET participation remains low with enrolment standing at only 60%.

The brains behind the idea  — Donatus Njoroge, a biochemist and a lecturer at Mount Kenya University (MKU)
Three Kenyan researchers have developed a COVID-19 contact tracing system that track down all the persons that a patient has come into contact with in the last 14 days.
Donatus Njoroge who is a biochemist and a lecturer at Mount Kenya University (MKU), Gideon Kamau an IT expert and Jesse Gitaki who is a medical doctor developed the App dubbed ‘KoviTrace’ which has a back end system (a web-controlled portal for use by the administrator and a front end system which is an application that can be installed on Android phones or accessed via a USSD code by those without smart phones.
The App also provides users with an updated access to WHO’s frequently asked questions about the disease and a self-screening test that gauges the user’s vulnerability to the disease based on his or her previous interactions, behaviour and movements.
Not only can this technology be used by the Ministry of Health in tracing all persons that COVID-19 patients came into contact with, Kenyans can also use it to establish if they have been into contact with persons who have tested positive.
“Once an individual has tested positive, a Ministry of Health official will only be required to key in the patient's phone number onto the web portal and command it to trace all his contacts within the last 14 days instead of relying on his word of mouth,” explained Njoroge, the researcher behind the idea.
The system also sends an alert to all the persons that the patient came into contact with.
The alert, received in the form of a text message, also contains information on preventive measures, contacts of the nearest hospital and the emergency toll-free numbers of the respective county COVID-19 coordinator.
Njoroge points out that the system works for those who have installed the app in their phones or registered with the USSD code.
“It uses a geo-sensing technology that tracks the user’s location and time. The data is saved under a unique ID that is encrypted and cannot be accessed by other parties,” says Njoroge.
If Kenya certifies and adopts ‘KoviTrace’, it will rank among global economies that have established similar apps for use in taming the virus before reopening the economies.

The government has set aside Sh 1.7 billion for construction of roads within Thika Town Constituency.

Through Kenya Urban Roads Authority (KURA) the government plans to spend Sh. 700 million for tarmacking and re-carpeting of various roads within the CBD including Commercial Street, Cross Road, General Kago, Haile Selassie, Harry Thuku, Kenyatta Highway, Kwame Nkurumah, Magoko, Bull and Mama Ngina.

Others are Stadium, Temple, Thika Girls, Uhuru Street, Upper Hill and Workshop.

Speaking after leading a team of Engineers from KeNHA and KURA, Engineer Chris Nzioka from department of planning at Kenya National Highway Authority said that there were plans to expand some roads within the town with a view to reducing traffic jams.

He added that they had done the site appreciation and were only awaiting survey and designing.
Speaking during the tour, area MP Eng. Patrick Wainaina acknowledged that the major road infrastructure upgrade would enhance movement within the town.

He added that the construction of the 18 Km Gatuanyaga-Munyu-Kang’oki road to bitumen standards would cost about Ksh. 1 billion.

This road will start at Gatuanyaga junction towards Munyu via Githima and exit at Kang’oki area. It will be the first tarmacked road in villages within Thika East region.

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